Diabetes is not a disease but people with their lifestyle habits make it a disease. Let us understand how people come into this category.
The pancreas is an endocrine gland behind the stomach which produces the hormone insulin and is responsible for maintaining the glucose level in the blood. One suffers from diabeties when the pancreas does not produce enough of the hormone insulin, or the body can’t use insulin properly. Insulin helps in carrying sugar from the bloodstream into the cells, and then inside the cells, sugar is converted into energy which can be used immediately or stored for future use. This energy is useful for our bodily functions. This is a normal process in a healthy individual.
But, if we talk about diabetes, it is a condition characterized by high blood sugar levels in the blood and not utilized by our body due to some of the other reasons.
❍ There are four types of diabetes:
❍ In Type1 diabetes, the beta cells produced in the pancreas are destroyed, avoiding the body from being able to produce enough insulin to sufficiently regulate blood glucose levels.
❍ In type 2 diabetes mellitus there occurs a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels). It can be either ineffective at using the insulin called insulin resistance or unable to produce enough insulin for the metabolism to occur properly
Gestational diabetes occurs when one have hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually develops between 24 and 28 weeks and typically disappears after the baby is born.
Prediabetes also knew as Juvenile diabetes, in this diabetes occurs in young people. Type 1diabetes affects young people 90% of people are younger than 25 years suffering from diabetes.
When one is pregnant it’s time to pay special attention to the diet. If suffering from type 1 or type 2diabetes then eating a variety of wholesome foods, and avoiding unhealthy foods and drinks will help one to keep self and the baby healthy.
In pregnancy eating for two doesn’t mean one should eat twice as much. One only needs about 300 more calories each day. Concentrate on getting foods that are more nutritious instead of just eating more.
❍ Diabetes Diet Plan in Pregnancy
One should follow all the tips of a good diet during pregnancy. Choose a balanced mix of vegetables, whole grains, fruits, low-fat dairy, lean meats, and healthy fats to get all the required essential nutrients.
But have also to control the blood sugar levels throughout the day.
The best way to follow is to take three meals and three snacks.
At each meal, eat at least one serving of protein and one serving of carbohydrates.
❍ Proteins can include
- Lean meat or fish
- Nuts or nut butter
❍ Carbs can include
- The starchy foods, like bread, cooked or dry cereal, rice, pasta, popcorn, or pretzels. (Choose whole grains over processed ones.)
- It can be in the form of Fruits
- Can also be dairies, such as milk and yogurt
One has to take care of the sugar level as done before pregnancy, it is good to consult dietitian, and she can guide for calories to eat. It might range from about 1,700 to 2,700 a day. One will probably need more calories as with the onset of pregnancy.
❍ Diet tips for a healthy pregnancy in diabetes: One requires the following nutrients without fail-
- Folic acid protects against problems with a baby’s spine and brain. A pregnant woman requires 400-800 micrograms of folic acid every day. One can get it from supplements or foods like spinach, nuts, and beans, as well as fortified foods like bread and cereal. Ask your doctor if there are other vitamins you should take.
- Calcium, one can get from foods like dairy products and broccoli
- Vitamin D, in foods like salmon and fortified milk
- Iron, one can get from sources like lean red meat or beans
One easy mealtime rule to control the blood sugar levels:
Block a quarter of the plate with meat or other protein foods, another quarter with whole grains or starchy vegetables (potatoes, peas, corn), and the rest with non-starchy vegetables, like greens, tomatoes, or squash. Along with it take a serving of milk, fruit, or yogurt to your meal or have it as a snack.
❍ Gestational Diabetes Diet
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (glucose) that initiates during pregnancy. Eating a balanced, healthy diet can only help one to manage gestational diabetes.
For a balanced diet, one needs to Eat a variety of healthy foods.
In general, one should eat:
- One should prefer plenty of whole fruits and vegetables
- One should prefer moderate amounts of lean proteins and healthy fats
- One should prefer moderate amounts of whole grains, such as bread, cereal, pasta, and rice, plus starchy vegetables, such as corn and peas
- One should consume fewer foods that have a lot of sugar, such as soft drinks, fruit juices, and pastries
One should eat three small- to moderate-sized meals and one or more snacks each day. One should keep the quantity and types of food (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) almost the same from day to day. This can help one to keep blood sugar stable.
❍ Carbohydrates in Gestational Diabetes Diet
- The carbohydrates are found in starchy or sugary foods like bread, rice, pasta, cereal, potatoes, peas, corn, fruit, fruit juice, milk, yogurt, cookies, candy, soda, and other sweets.
- High-fibre, whole-grain carbohydrates are healthy choices.
- One should avoid eating simple carbohydrates, such as potatoes, french-fries, white rice, candy, soda, and other sweets. This is because they cause blood sugar to rise quickly after its consumption.
- Vegetables are good for health and blood sugar. Enjoy lots of them.
Grains, Beans, and Starchy Vegetables in Gestational Diabetes Diet
❍ Eat 6 or more servings a day. One serves measures:
- 1 slice bread
- 1 ounce (28 grams) ready-to-eat cereal
- half cup (105 grams) cooked rice or pasta
- 1 English muffin
Choose foods loaded with vitamins, minerals, fiber, and healthy carbohydrates in Gestational Diabetes Diet. Like:
- Whole-grain bread and crackers
- Whole grain cereals
- Whole grains, such as barley or oats
- Brown or wild rice
- Whole-wheat pasta
- Starchy vegetables, such as corn and peas
Whole-wheat or other whole-grain flours are beneficial. Consume more of low-fat bread, such as tortillas, English muffins, and pita bread.
❍ Vegetables in Gestational Diabetes Diet
One should eat 3 to 5 servings a day. One serves measures:
- One cup (340 grams) leafy, green vegetables
- One cup (340 grams) cooked or chopped raw leafy vegetables
- Three fourth cup (255 grams) vegetable juice
- Half cup (170 grams) of chopped vegetables, cooked or raw
Healthy vegetable choices include:
- Vegetables that are fresh or frozen without added sauces, fats, or salt.
- Vegetables which are dark green and deep yellow, such as spinach, broccoli, romaine lettuce, carrots, and peppers
❍ Fruits in Gestational Diabetes Diet
One should eat 2 to 4 servings a day. One serves measures:
- One medium-size whole fruit (such as a banana, apple, or orange)
- Half cup (170 grams) chopped, frozen, cooked, or canned fruit
- Three fourth cup (180 milliliters) fruit juice
Healthy fruit choices include:
- Complete fruits rather than juices. They have more fiber.
- Citrus fruits, such as oranges, grapefruits, and tangerines.
- Fruit juices without added sugar.
- Fresh fruits and juices.
❍ Milk and Dairy in Gestational Diabetes Diet
One should eat 4 servings of low-fat or nonfat dairy products per day. One serves measure:
- One cup (240 milliliters) milk or yogurt
- One and a half oz (42 grams) natural cheese
- Two oz (56 grams) processed cheese
Healthy dairy choices include:
- Prefer Low-fat or non-fat milk or yogurt. Keep away from yogurt with added sugar or artificial sweeteners.
- Prefer Healthy dairy products which are a great source of protein, calcium, and phosphorus.
❍ Protein (Meat, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts) in Gestational Diabetes Diet
Eat 2 to 3 servings a day. One serves measure:
- Two to three oz (55 to 84 grams) cooked meat, poultry, or fish
- Half cup (170 grams) cooked beans
- One egg
- Two tablespoons (30 grams) peanut butter
Healthy protein choices include:
- If taking fish and poultry, remove the skin from chicken and turkey.
- One should take lean cuts of beef, veal, pork or wild game.
- One should trim all visible fat from meat. One can bake, roast, broil, grill, or boil instead of frying. These foods are excellent sources of B vitamins, protein, iron, and zinc.
❍ Sweets in Gestational Diabetes Diet
- We are aware sweets are high in fat and sugar, so limit its consumption. Keep portion sizes small.
- Even sugar-free sweets may not be the best choice. This is because they may not be free of carbohydrates or calories.
- Ask for extra spoons or forks and share dessert with others.
❍ Fats in Gestational Diabetes Diet
In general, one should limit the intake of fatty foods.
- One can take butter, margarine, salad dressing, cooking oil, and desserts.
- Keep away from fats high in saturated fat such as hamburger, cheese, bacon, and butter.
- Do not be completely away from fats and oils entirely as they provide energy for growth and are essential for a baby’s brain development.
- Choose healthy oils, such as canola oil, olive oil, peanut oil, and safflower oil. Include nuts, avocados, and olives.
❍ Don’t Diet tips for pregnancy in diabetes
- Say no to alcohol as it raises the odds of miscarriage and fetal alcohol syndrome.
- Say no to raw seafood, like sushi or oysters, or high-mercury fish like swordfish.
- Avoid unpasteurized milk products, juices, and soft cheeses, like Brie and feta, unless they are labeled as pasteurized.
- Only eat meat, eggs, and poultry that are fully cooked.
- Don’t drink more than 200 milligrams of caffeine a day, about 1to 1& 1/2 cups of coffee.
- Even though many herbal teas don’t have caffeine, scientists aren’t totally sure how some of them affect growing babies.
- Artificial sweeteners aren’t safe during pregnancy, but it’s a good idea to limit the occasional diet soda or sugar-free treat.
- Do not eat too many sweets and desserts. They add carbs without nutrients and can spike the blood sugar.
“Maintaining Controlled Healthy Diet Leads To Healthy Pregnancy”
Disclaimer: Updates mentioned in the article are for general information purpose only. If making any changes in the fitness program or diet then it is requested to consult your doctor or a dietician before implementing anything new.
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